(1) A fundamental term in linguistics, originally introduced by Ferdinand de Saussure to refer to the sequential characteristics of speech, seen as a string of constituents (sometimes, but not always) in linear order. The relationships between constituents (syntagms or syntagmas) in a construction are generally called syntagmatic relations. Sets of syntagmatically related constituents are often referred to as structures. Syntagmatic relations, together with paradigmatic relations, constitute the statement of a linguistic unit’s identity within the language system. Syntagmatic relationships can be established at all levels of analysis. In tagmemic grammar, however, the term syntagmeme is used in a restricted sense, referring to a unit in a grammatical hierarchy seen from the viewpoint of the elements (or tagmemes) it includes; e.g. the sentence is a syntagmeme for the clauses that constitute it.

(2) In psycholinguistics, the term is sometimes used to refer to a class of associative responses which people make when hearing a stimulus word, viz. those which fall into a different word-class from the stimulus, in that the response word could precede or follow the stimulus word in a sentence. A syntagmatic response or association would be drive following car, sheep following black, etc. The syntagmatic / paradigmatic shift refers to a change in the patterns of response noted in children at around age seven, when the earlier pattern (of primarily syntagmatic associations) develops into the more adult-like pattern primarily involving paradigmatic associations.


(1)(syntagm-a, -eme)(组合成分,组合法位)语言学的一个基本术语,最初由瑞士语言学家菲迪南德·德·索绪尔引入,指将言语视为(有时但不总是)以线性词序排列的组构成分语符列时言语的序列特性。构式中组构成分(“组合成分”)之间的关系一般称作组合关系。有组合关系的结构成分的结合称作结构。组合关系与聚合关系一起对语言系统内语言单位的身份作出说明。各个分析平面都可确立组合关系。但在法位语法中,组合法位一语有限定涵义,指语法层级中从其包含的成分(即法位)角度定义的单位:例如句子是其包含的小句的组合法位。

(2)心理语言学用来指听到一个刺激词后作出的一类联想反应,反应词与刺激词不属同一词类,并在句子中位于刺激词之前或之后。例如听到car“汽车”后的组合反应或联想是drive“驾驶”,听到black“黑”后的组合反应是sheep“羊”(black sheep“害群之马”)。组合/聚合转变(syntagmatic / paradigmatic shift)指见于儿童七岁左右发生的一种反应模式的变化,即由原先(主要是组合联想)的模式变为更接近于成人的主要是聚合联想的模式。