A term used in the analysis of grammatical functions to refer to a major constituent of sentence or clause structure, traditionally associated with the ‘doer’ of an action. The oldest approaches make a twofold distinction in sentence analysis between subject and predicate, and this is still common, though not always in this terminology; other approaches distinguish subject from a series of other elements of structure. Linguistics analyses have emphasized the complexity involved in this notion, distinguishing, for example, the grammatical subject from the underlying or logical subject of a sentence. Not all subjects, moreover, can be analysed as doers of an action. In generative grammar, subject is sometimes defined as the NP immediately dominated by S. While NP is the typical formal realization of subject, other categories can have this function, e.g. clause (S-bar).