(1) A term used in metrical phonology for an abstract tree structure which defined the basic structural possibilities of syllables in a language. For example, an influential formulation of English syllable structure involves a hierarchical analysis into an onset + nucleus +coda, with the latter two elements being grouped as a rhyme, and each element consisting of two segments.

(2) The term also has a central status in prosodic morphology, where it refers to a fixed phonological shape imposed on varying segmental material. Templates are defined in the grammar and realized in the derivation in terms of the units in the prosodic hierarchy: mora, syllable, foot and prosodic word. The templatic target may be imposed on any morphological base (e.g. stem, word, affix). The template satisfaction condition states that the satisfaction of templatic constraints is obligatory and is determined by prosodic principles. This approach contrasts with segmentalist theories of template form.

(3) A general sense of the term (‘a pattern established as a norm against which other patterns can be measured’) also has a number of applications in specific linguistic or phonetic contexts. For example, in cognitive grammar, connections between established patterns of neurological activity serve as templates for categorizing expressions. In automatic speech recognition, templates are the stored, labelled spectra (or the key features of spectra) against which an analysis of the signal to be recognized is matched (template matching).




3)这一术语的一般涵义(“定为标准的一个型式,其他型式参照这个标准来衡量”)在语言学和语音学的一些特定领域有多种应用。例如,认知语法中,神经活动既定型式之间的联系可作为词语划分范畴的模板。在自动言语识别中,模板是存储的加标签的频谱(或频谱的关键特征),对有待识别的信号的某种分析可与这个模板相匹配(模板匹配(template matching))。