A category used in the grammatical analysis of clause / sentence constructions, with particular reference to the verb’s relationship to dependent elements of structure. The main member of this category are transitive (tr, trans), referring to a verb which can take a direct object, and intransitive (intr, intrans), where it cannot. Many verbs can have both a transitive and an intransitive use, and in some languages this distinction is marked morphologically. More complex relationships between a verb and the elements dependent upon it are usually classified separately. For example, verbs which take two objects are sometimes called ditransitive. There are also several uses of verbs which are marginal to one or other of these categories, as in pseudo-intransitive constructions (e.g. the eggs are selling well, where an agent is assumed - ‘someone is selling the eggs’ - unlike normal intransitive constructions, which do not have an agent transform: we went, but not someone went us). Some grammarians also talk about (in)transitive prepositions. For example, with is a transitive preposition, as it must always be accompanied by a noun phrase complement (object), and along can be transitive or intransitive: cf. She was walking along the river v. She was walking along.


小句/句子的语法分析使用的一个范畴,特别指动词与结构中依附成分的关系。这个范畴的主要成员就是及物和不及物,前者指动词能带一个直接宾语,后者指动词不能带直接宾语。许多动词有及物和不及物两种用法,在有的语言中这种区别用形态来表示。动词与其依附成分之间较复杂的关系通常另行分类。例如能带两个宾语的动词有时称作双及物动词。还有一些动词的用法介于这些范畴之间,例如假不及物构式(如the eggs are selling well“鸡蛋卖得很旺”,其中施事是无需说明的—someone is selling the eggs“某人在卖鸡蛋”—与一般的不及物构式不同,后者不能有施事转换:we went“我们去了”不能说成someone went us“某人去了我们”)。有些语法学家区分及物和不及物介词。例如with“和…一起;用”是一个及物介词,总是带一个名词短语补语(宾语),而along“沿着”则是及物和不及物两可的:比较She was walking along the river“她正沿着河走”,She was walking along“她正顺着往前走”。